Maze Ransomware: Analysis, Detection, and Recovery

In the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats, Maze ransomware has emerged as a notorious player, intertwining sophisticated attack techniques with the murky world of cryptocurrency. Since its discovery in 2019, Maze has not only encrypted organizational data but also brought to the forefront the double-edged sword of digital currencies in ransom demands.

What is Maze Ransomware?

Maze ransomware is a complex strain of malware that has targeted a plethora of industries worldwide, inflicting severe operational and financial damage. Unlike conventional ransomware, Maze employs a double extortion tactic: it encrypts the victim’s data and threatens to leak it unless a ransom—typically in cryptocurrency—is paid. This potent combination of data encryption and exfiltration has set Maze apart in the cybercriminal world. The Kaspersky Resource Center provides a comprehensive definition and explanation of Maze ransomware, highlighting its capabilities and the threats it poses.

Key Characteristics of Maze Ransomware

Maze ransomware first caught the attention of cybersecurity researchers in 2019, thanks to its multifaceted attack vector and the broad range of sectors it targets, including healthcare, finance, engineering, government, and technology. Its distribution methods are varied, leveraging email phishing, exploiting known vulnerabilities, malicious links, and even brute force attacks to infiltrate systems.

One of the most concerning aspects of Maze is its use of obfuscation techniques to evade detection and its ability to perform lateral movement within networks, which allows it to spread quickly and silently. The ransomware commonly disguises itself as legitimate 32-bit binary files, often taking the form of .exe or .dll files, making it harder for traditional antivirus solutions to spot.

Technical Analysis of Maze Ransomware

At its core, Maze ransomware is designed to encrypt user files and demand a ransom. However, it distinguishes itself by also exfiltrating data, holding it hostage with the threat of public disclosure. This ransomware has been known to exploit critical vulnerabilities such as CVE-2019-11510 and CVE-2018-8174, which affect Pulse Secure VPN and Microsoft Internet Explorer, respectively.

The attack process of Maze is methodical and often begins with initial access through valid credentials obtained via spear-phishing or other means. It then proceeds with reconnaissance, scanning the network for vulnerabilities using tools like smbtools.exe, Adfind, and BloodHound. Lateral movement is a critical stage, where Maze employs techniques like credential dumping and LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning to spread across the network. Privilege escalation and persistence are the final stages, where the ransomware establishes backdoors and captures user credentials for long-term access.

Maze Ransomware’s Impact on Victims

The impact of Maze on its victims can be catastrophic. High-profile cases such as the attacks on Cognizant, Canon, Xerox, and the city of Pensacola serve as grim reminders of the operational disruptions and financial losses that can ensue. Beyond the immediate harm, the psychological impact of data leak threats looms large, as the Maze operators often publish victim data samples on their website, exacerbating the damage by threatening to inform the media, sell the data on the dark web, or attack clients and partners.

Mitigation and Detection Strategies

Defending against Maze ransomware requires a multifaceted approach. The SentinelOne Singularity XDR Platform has demonstrated efficacy in detecting and preventing Maze attacks. Antimalware software equipped with signatures, heuristics, or machine learning algorithms is also recommended to thwart such advanced threats.

A robust cybersecurity posture must include regular security audits, comprehensive employee training, and resilient backup and recovery plans. Upon detecting an infection, immediate actions such as isolating infected devices and conducting thorough malware scans are vital to containing the breach.

The Ransomware Cartel

Maze’s operations are not solitary; it has formed what is known as a ransomware cartel with other malicious entities like LockBit and RagnarLocker, sharing tactics and data to amplify their criminal endeavors. Despite claims of disbanding at the end of 2020, similarities between Maze and new ransomware strains like Egregor and Sekhmet suggest that the threat actors behind Maze may continue their attacks under different guises.

Impact on Cryptocurrencies

Maze ransomware has shone a spotlight on the role of cryptocurrencies in cybercrime. The preference for ransom payments in digital currencies like Bitcoin underscores the anonymity and difficulty in tracking such transactions, which is attractive to cybercriminals. This relationship has significant implications for the regulation and monitoring of cryptocurrencies, as authorities strive to prevent their abuse while maintaining the benefits they offer to legitimate users.

Preventative Measures Against Maze Ransomware

To safeguard against the insidious threat of Maze ransomware, organizations and individuals must adopt a proactive stance. Ensuring that systems are consistently updated and patched is the first line of defense against the exploitation of vulnerabilities. Security software like Kaspersky Internet Security, which has garnered awards for its performance, serves as a critical tool in identifying and neutralizing threats.

The implementation of VPNs and secure connections, such as Kaspersky Secure Connection, adds another layer of protection, particularly for remote access scenarios. Regularly backing up data and educating staff on cybersecurity risks are also fundamental practices that can mitigate the threat of ransomware.

It is equally important to monitor for weak passwords and limit account privileges to minimize the risk of unauthorized access. Tools like CrowdStrike Falcon Zero Trust offer additional security assessments, threat detection, and prevention capabilities, which are essential in a landscape where Maze and its variants are actively seeking to exploit any weakness.

Ethical and Legal Considerations

The ethical and legal implications of responding to a Maze ransomware attack are complex. Paying the ransom can be seen as an incentive for future attacks, yet for some businesses, it might seem like the only viable option to recover critical data. However, law enforcement agencies and cybersecurity experts strongly advise against this, recommending instead that organizations focus on fixing security issues and involving the authorities.

The decision to pay a ransom in cryptocurrency carries significant ethical considerations. It not only fuels the ransomware economy but also raises questions about the legality and moral responsibility of funding potentially criminal activities. Organizations must weigh the immediate benefits against the long-term consequences of such actions.

The Role of Cybersecurity Platforms and Services

Advanced cybersecurity platforms and services play a pivotal role in combating threats like Maze ransomware. SentinelOne and CrowdStrike, with their respective solutions, provide advanced detection and prevention platforms that can identify and isolate attacks before they cause significant damage. The CrowdStrike Falcon Zero Trust platform, for instance, helps enforce conditional access policies and monitors network traffic for malicious activity.

Adaptive authentication and conditional access policies are crucial in ensuring that only legitimate users have access to sensitive data and systems. By enforcing these security measures, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of a successful ransomware attack.


Maze ransomware represents a formidable challenge in the cybersecurity arena. Its ability to encrypt and exfiltrate data, coupled with the use of cryptocurrency for ransoms, has made it a blueprint for other cybercriminals. As the threat landscape continues to evolve, staying vigilant and implementing robust cybersecurity measures remains paramount.

The fight against ransomware like Maze is not solely a technological battle; it requires international cooperation and regulatory efforts to combat the misuse of cryptocurrencies. By understanding the complexities of Maze ransomware and taking comprehensive preventative measures, we can collectively work towards a more secure digital future.

In the end, knowledge is power. Staying informed about the latest threats and best practices in cybersecurity is crucial for organizations and individuals alike. As Maze ransomware has shown, the cost of complacency can be high, but with the right tools and strategies in place, it is a threat that can be managed and mitigated.