Vice Society Ransomware: Analysis, Detection, and Recovery

The cybersecurity landscape is continuously evolving, with new threat actors emerging and adapting their tactics to exploit vulnerabilities in various sectors. One such group that has garnered attention is Vice Society, a ransomware collective known for its targeted attacks on educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and government entities.

What is Vice Society?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to block access to a computer system or data, typically by encrypting files until a ransom is paid. Vice Society emerged as a significant player in the ransomware arena in summer 2021, quickly establishing itself as a group specializing in intrusion, exfiltration, and extortion activities. Unlike many cybercriminal organizations that develop their own ransomware, Vice Society is known to outsource the development of their payloads, utilizing variants based on Hive, Zeppelin, and HelloKitty.

Key Characteristics of Vice Society Ransomware

Vice Society’s ransomware variants are engineered to disrupt operations and leverage stolen data for extortion. The group has been associated with ransomware types such as Hello Kitty/Five Hands and Zeppelin, with the potential for future variants as they continue to evolve their arsenal. Their approach often involves exploiting critical vulnerabilities, including the widely publicized PrintNightmare exploits (CVE-2021-34527 and CVE-2021-1675), to gain access to and escalate privileges within target networks.

Target Sectors and Victims

While Vice Society casts a wide net, they have shown a particular penchant for targeting the education sector, especially K-12 institutions. According to a joint advisory from the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), Vice Society’s focus on education is notable, with their tactics posing a significant threat to the continuity of educational services and the protection of sensitive student data.

Attack Vectors and Tactics

Vice Society employs a variety of attack vectors to infiltrate networks. Phishing and spear-phishing emails are common delivery methods for their ransomware, deceiving recipients into enabling the execution of malicious payloads. They also utilize third-party frameworks like Empire, Metasploit, and Cobalt Strike to maintain a presence within compromised systems.

Their tactics are characterized by the use of Commercial off the shelf (COTS) utilities and Living Off the Land Binaries and Scripts (LOLBins), allowing them to move stealthily within an environment and evade detection. Persistence is often achieved through modifications to the Windows Registry, specifically the RUN key, ensuring their malicious tools are launched with each system reboot.

Technical Details of Attacks

Vice Society’s technical proficiency is evident in their attacks. They deploy embedded .BAT files designed to disrupt system recovery by removing the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) and boot recovery options. Communication with victims is conducted through onionmail addresses, reflecting the group’s preference for anonymized communication channels.

Detection and Prevention

Detecting Vice Society’s presence requires a multi-layered approach. Organizations are encouraged to employ anti-malware software that utilizes signatures, heuristics, or machine learning to identify and block ransomware. Monitoring network traffic for anomalies can also reveal interactions with command-and-control servers. Regular security audits are essential for identifying system vulnerabilities, and cybersecurity training for employees is crucial for recognizing and responding to threats.

Mitigation strategies involve a blend of technical and procedural measures. Educating employees on the risks associated with ransomware and teaching them to identify threats is fundamental. Implementing strong passwords, enabling multi-factor authentication (MFA), and keeping systems up to date with patches are key steps in preventing breaches. Establishing a consistent backup and disaster recovery process is vital for resilience against ransomware attacks.

Impact on the Education Sector

The education sector’s vulnerability to ransomware attacks by groups like Vice Society cannot be overstated. Schools often operate with tight budgets, outdated equipment, and limited cybersecurity staff, making them prime targets for cybercriminals. When an institution like the Los Angeles Unified School District falls victim to an attack, the repercussions are vast, ranging from the disruption of educational services to the potential exposure of sensitive student information.

Law Enforcement and Government Response

In response to the rising threat posed by Vice Society, law enforcement and government agencies have been vigilant. The FBI and CISA have issued alerts highlighting the group’s disproportionate targeting of educational institutions and providing guidance on mitigating ransomware threats. These advisories are crucial resources for organizations looking to understand and prepare for potential attacks.

Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) and Mitigation Strategies

Identifying an attack in its early stages is critical for minimizing damage. Organizations should be aware of the following IOCs associated with Vice Society:

Email Addresses:

  • v-society.official@onionmail[.]org
  • ViceSociety@onionmail[.]org
  • [First Name][Last Name]@onionmail[.]org

TOR Address:

  • http://vsociethok6sbprvevl4dlwbqrzyhxcxaqpvcqt5belwvsuxaxsutyad[.]onion

IP Addresses for C2:

  • 5.255.99[.]59 (High Confidence)
  • 5.161.136[.]176 (Medium Confidence)
  • 198.252.98[.]184 (Medium Confidence)
  • 194.34.246[.]90 (Low Confidence)

File Hashes:

  • MD5: fb91e471cfa246beb9618e1689f1ae1d
  • SHA1: various hashes provided in the CISA advisory

Mitigation strategies include prioritizing the remediation of known exploited vulnerabilities, training users to recognize and report phishing attempts, enabling and enforcing multifactor authentication, and maintaining offline, encrypted, and immutable backups. Organizations should also review and secure third-party vendor connections and implement network segmentation to control traffic and restrict adversary movement.

Reporting and Resources

Victims of Vice Society attacks are urged to report incidents to the appropriate authorities. This can be done through contacting FBI Field Offices, CISA Regional Offices, or by emailing [email protected] or calling (888) 282-0870. Additionally, resources such as the CISA Ransomware Readiness Assessment Tool and the website provide valuable information for preparing and responding to ransomware threats.


Vice Society ransomware represents a significant threat to the education sector and beyond. The group’s targeted attacks underscore the need for comprehensive cybersecurity measures and the importance of staying informed about the latest threats. By understanding Vice Society’s tactics, recognizing the IOCs, and employing robust mitigation strategies, organizations can better protect themselves against this persistent cyber adversary.

As Vice Society continues to evolve, the cybersecurity community must remain vigilant and proactive in sharing information and resources to combat this and other ransomware groups. Through collaboration and a commitment to cybersecurity, we can work towards a future where educational institutions—and all organizations—are safeguarded against the disruptive and damaging effects of ransomware attacks.